Week 3:

Thomas Paine “Common Sense”

Thomas Paine was born in England in 1737. He arrived to Philadelphia in 1774 and was a pamphleteer. He supported the American Revolution and wrote a pamphlet called, “Common Sense”. It was published in 1776. “Common Sense” was meant to challenge the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. In “Common Sense”, Paine argued for independence from Britain and to this day, this pamphlet is considered the most influential pamphlet in American History. “Common Sense” also played a significant role in the American Revolution because it influenced people to revolt against the British. Paine’s pamphlet sold about 500,000 copies and supported the independence from Britain. Thomas Paine died at the age of 72 in New York City on June 8th, 1809.

The Associated Press

The Associated Press was created in 1846. It is a newspaper in New York City and was created when five newspapers got together to gather information on the Mexican War and take the news up north faster than the U.S Post Office could deliver it. It is neither privately owned nor government-founded. It is owned by its American newspaper and Broadcast members. The Associated Press has covered all major news events for 165 years already and since the Pulitzer Prize was established, they have won 51 Pulitzers and 31 photo Pulitzers. Throughout the years, The Associated Press has won many awards and has been quick to provide its readers with the latest information.

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Logo for “Associated Press” newspaper

The Inverted Pyramid

The Inverted Pyramid is one of the most used structures in journalism. In an Inverted Pyramid, the most important things go at the top and the general information is at the bottom. In the lead paragraph, which is the top of the pyramid, the writer usually writes the 5 w’s. Afterward, the writer gives the general information and smaller details. This way of writing has originated from the telegraph. Back then, it was important to give the most important information first rather than the smaller details. This was so in case of an emergency, the receiver could get the most needed information first.

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An inverted pyramid

Objectivity in Journalism

Objectivity means to be realistic and factual towards something without imputing thoughts or feelings. Objectivity in journalism just means writing the facts of a story without imputing any personal opinions or feelings. By being objective in journalism, you are being neutral towards the subject. It is very challenging to write a story without imputing any personal opinions due to the fact that every journalist, at one point or another, will want to add their own perspective towards the subject. Sometimes they will do it without even noticing. Objective journalism is used in American media today. It is used to talk about politics without choosing one side over the other. This is important because in a democratic republic, you have to be able to give the facts or else some people will get mad. There will be some people who are democratic and people that will be republic. So, to please both sides and not have one mad, you use objective journalism.

Week 2:

Yellow journalism

Yellow Journalism began with a rivalry between William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer II. Because they were competing, they both had to add more interesting stories to their newspaper to get more readers. They added a lot more dramatized stories and altered them to sell more papers and get more readers. With this they added drawings and cartoons, like “The Yellow Kid.” “The Yellow Kid” was a cartoon that was published in 1896 by Pulitzer. It was one of the things Hearst and Pulitzer fought over. “The Yellow Kid” was also used to persuade the public over topics like the Spanish-American war and to discredit other papers.

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“The Yellow Kid” cartoon

Muckraking

Muckraking was a name given to American journalists that exposed business abuse and corruption in politics. The name was given to these journalists by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. It was given in a speech and the term was derived from “Pilgrim’s Progress.” The character President Roosevelt was referring to was a man who had looked downward with a muckrake in his hands and was only interested in raking muck. Muckraking enabled publishers to sell more papers due to the fact that what was being printed had to do with the government. By publishing a series of articles about problems, they were able to get the attention of Congress and fix the problems quicker than before. As Roosevelt had said, muckrakers were “sensational and irresponsible.”

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President Roosevelt

Zenger Trial

John Peter Zenger was a poor German printer who printed, “The New York Weekly Journal.” His newspaper made its first appearance on November 5th, 1733. “The New York Weekly Journal” was made to expose Governor Cosby’s true character. The newspaper got most of its information from men in the Popular Party, which mainly consisted of Lewis Morris, James Alexander, and William Smith. On November 17th, 1734, Zenger was arrested for “seditious libel” against Governor Cosby. Zenger was in jail for a year and his trial began in August 4th, 1735. He pleaded “not guilty” to printing seditious libel against Governor Cosby. Chief Justice DeLancey said then said to the jury, “The laws in my opinion are very clear; they cannot be admitted to justify a libel.” Afterwards, Andrew Hamilton, who was Zenger’s attorney, famously said, “The truth is a defense against libel.” John Peter Zenger and Andrew Hamilton won the trial.

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“The New York Weekly Journal” was the newspaper that Zenger printed and got arrested for.

William Randolph Hearst 

William Randolph Hearst was born on April 29th, 1863, in San Francisco, California. He used his wealth to his advantage and traveled around Europe a lot when he was a boy. Hearst was a great journalist and greatly influenced journalism with “yellow journalism.” He attended Harvard when he was younger and was the editor for the “Harvard Lampoon.” He was inspired, at the time, by newspaper, “New York World’” and when his father acquired the “San Francisco Examiner,” Hearst invested in it, and in a few years the newspaper prospered. Eventually, he acquired over two dozen newspapers and a fourth of Americans got their news from a Hearst paper. Hearst also started one of the first print-media companies to enter radio broadcasting in the 1920’s. In 1903, Hearst married Millicent Willson and had 5 sons. He died on August 14, 1951, at the age of 88.

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William Randolph Hearst

Week 1:

Publick Occurrences

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Publick Occurrences was a paper that was published by Benjamin Harris on September 5th, 1690. It was the first paper published in America, but was shut down 4 days after publishing due to the fact that it was published without a license. This paper was important because it was America’s first newspaper. Fourteen years after Publick Occurrences, John Campbell published a newspaper similar to Publick Occurrences, this time with a license.

I believe that this topic was important to the history of journalism in America because it was what began and revolutionized newspapers. I also thought that what happened was a bit dumb, but justified. I think this because they shouldn’t have even though he should’ve gotten a license first, the government shouldn’t have gotten him out of business.

Isaac Doolittle

Isaac Doolittle was born in 1722 and grew up in New Haven, Connecticut. He spent most of his life there and even had a brass shop, which was one of the firsts in Connecticut. Doolittle is known for building the first printing press in America in 1769. He built it for William Goddard who was a printer in Philadelphia. He also built large grandfather clocks and died at the age of 78 on February 3rd, 1800.

Isaac Doolittle press

First Amendment

The First Amendment gives U.S citizens the freedom of religion, speech, assembly, petition, and press. These rights are protected by the Supreme Court and state governments cannot interfere with these rights. Freedom of the press is similar to freedom of speech. They’re similar because they both allow citizens to express themselves. Freedom of the press doesn’t give members of the media any special rights or privileges that aren’t given to regular citizens. With the First Amendment, citizens are able to express themselves and try to change something that they don’t like with petitions or assemblies. (which are also part of the first amendment)

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Penny Press

The Penny Press was famous for its super low price. It was sold at a penny per paper and it was good because it made the news available to everyone, not just the upper class citizens. The Penny Press was able to sell the news to everyone for a penny due to the fact that it had a lot of advertisements, so it didn’t have to rely on subscriptions and daily sales like the other papers. “The Sun” was the first popular penny paper and because of the penny press, newspapers paid more attention to what the public wanted to read. The Penny Press era impacted the way newspapers operate today because papers today rely on advertisements as well, instead of subscriptions. Also, newspapers today pay more attention to what the readers want to read and give news that impact the readers or entertain them.

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Josh Hutcherson

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Josh Hutcherson was born on October 12, 1992 in Union, Kentucky. He began his acting carrer in the ealry 2000s when he moved to California to pursue his dream of becoming an actor. He started out with small roles in minor films and television shows. His career began when he was cast in the “First Snowfall” episode for tv series “ER” that was aired in late 2002. In 2003, he played the role of Peter Falk’s grandson in “Wilder Days”. Then, in 2004, he did two animated movies and was the voice of Mark in “Howl’s Moving Castle” (English version) and a hero boy in “The Polar Express”. He also did a voice-over in “Justice League Unlimited” for the episode “For the Man Who Has Everything”. In 2005, he was Bucky in “Kicking & Screaming”, starred in “Little Manhattan” as Gabe, and in “Zathura” as Walter. Then, in 2006, he had the role of Carl Munro in the movie “RV”. In 2007, he was Jess Aarons in the movie “Bridge to Terebithia”, he starred in the film “Firehouse Dog”, and in 2008, he did “Journey 3-D”. In 2009, he appeared in “Cirque Du Freak: The Vampire’s Assistant”, “Detention” in 2010, “The Hunger Games” and “Journey 2: The Mysterious Island” in 2012. Josh Hutcherson is a very accomplished actor and has appeared in many more films.

September 27th Weekend Releases

Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs 2

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Remember Flint’s food machine? Remember all that food it made? Well, guess where all the leftovers went! After Flint’s journey to destroy his machine and returning home, he learns that it survived. But not only that, it’s making food animals!! Now, Flint has to go back and destroy the machine, all while battling ferocious food-animals to save the world once again.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNiVB_d_z4k

Don Jon

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Jon Matello, or Don Jon, is strong, handsome, and a good old fashioned guy. His friends say he’s able to get a different woman every weekend, but he seems to  find an even greater bliss when he’s home alone watching pornography. Then, there’s a girl named Barbara Sugarman who is smart, beautiful and old fashioned. Since she was raised with romantic Hollywood movies, she wants to find the perfect love. Don Jon and her struggle against false hopes and try to find true intimacy throughout this movie.

The Citizen

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In “The Citizen”, Ibrahim Jarrah wins the Green Card U.S Lottery and is given the chance to become a U.S Citizen. But, the day after he arrives to New York City, terrorists attack on the day of 9/11. This film is based on true events as this Middle Easterner struggles to capture his American dream.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6A9ynfV-OM

source: http://www.moviefone.com/september-movie-release-schedule

Prisoners

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Imagine having an 6 year-old daughter one day, and the next day she’s gone. What would you do?

In “Prisoners” Keller Dover (Hugh Jackman) is trying to find her daughter, Anna, after she’s gone missing with her friend, Joy. With the help of Detective Loki (Jake Gyllenhaal) and Joy’s father (Terrence Howard), they go on a desperate search to find their daughters anad bring them home once again. But as they search, they discover some… gruesome and disturbing things. As the search progresses, the parents become more and more desperate for their daughters, and when police release first suspect, Alex Jones (Paul Dano), Dover decides to take things into his own hands. Just how far is he willing to go is the question…

In my opinion, “Prisoners” was a great suspence/mystery. It kept me on the edge of my seat and at times I was left in shock because of all the events that were happening. But, I think that this was one of those movies that you need to watch twice to truly understand it. Overall, I thought that this movie was very compelling, thought-provoking and director Denis Villeneuve did a great job. I would recomend watching it, but given that its rated “R”, it would be best to leave the kids at home.